International Journal of Business and Management Sciences <p>International Journal of Business and Management Sciences is a peer-reviewed journal published by BigBio Researchers Publishers. The aim of the journal is to publish the latest research related to the field of management, business administration, marketing, finance, entrepreneurship, and so on. IJBMS is a peer-reviewed open-access research journal recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan in the Y category. IJBMS is indexed in the Directory of Research Journal Indexing, ResearchBIB, ESJI, Scientific Indexing Services, Advance Science Index, Cite Factor, InfoBase Index, and in process with Scopus, WOS, and DOAJ. IJBMS invites contributions from researchers, scholars, and academicians in the area of Business and Management. The journal has a diverse advisory board consisting of experts from well-reputed universities and organizations around the world. The journal provides a platform for sharing diverse research work in the field and aims to reduce the gap between the industry and academia. The journal is freely available to readers through its website. The journal has an acceptance rate of 34 percent.</p> <p><strong>LONGTERM DIGITAL ARCHIVES/PRESERVATION POLICY</strong></p> <p>IJBMS publications are deposited in and available from multiple digital archives around the world. To guarantee long-term digital preservation, content published in IJBMS is deposited in the following archives.</p> <p><em><strong><a href="">CLOCKSS</a></strong></em></p> <p>Non-for-profit dark archive which stores all IJBMS content. If the content is no longer available from any participating publisher, then CLOCKSS is able to make this available as open access.</p> <p></p> <p><strong><em><a href="">LOCKSS</a></em></strong></p> <p>The LOCKSS is a peer-to-peer network that develops and supports an open source system allowing libraries to collect, preserve and provide their readers with access to material published on the Web. IJBMS all published contents are deposited and stored in LOCKSS. </p> <p></p> <p><strong><em><a href="">PKP Preservation Network (PN)</a></em></strong></p> <p>PKP has developed the PKP Preservation Network (PKP PN) to digitally preserve OJS journals. The PKP PN ensures that journals that are not part of any other digital preservation can be preserved for long-term access. IJBMS all published contents are preserved automatically in PKP (PN). </p> <p><strong>E ISSN</strong>: 2708 – 4337</p> <p><strong>P ISSN:</strong> 2708 – 4329</p> en-US (Dr. Muhammad Farooq Jan) (Technical Staff) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 17:24:46 +0200 OJS 60 The Impact of Price Sensitivity on Purchase Intentions in Modern Retails: The Mediating Role of Consumer Emotional Response <p>This study investigated the relationship between price sensitivity and purchase intentions in contemporary retail, focusing on the emotive response of consumers. This study investigates pricing sensitivity, customer emotive response, and purchase intents using the Stimulus Organism Reaction (SOR) paradigm, which asserts that external stimuli influence customers' interior perceptions and behaviour. 341 contemporary retail consumers in Abbottabad, Pakistan were surveyed. Using EFA, CFA, and SEM, the measurement model and hypotheses were validated. Purchase intentions are negatively correlated with price sensitivity. Pricesensitive customers are less likely to purchase. Emotional reactions <br />of consumers have a positive effect on their purchase intentions, highlighting the significance of emotion in consumer decisionmaking. Consumer sentiment mediates the relationship between price sensitivity and purchase intentions. This indicates that emotional responses affect price sensitivity and purchasing intentions. The study can be utilized by retailers to develop pricing and marketing strategies that increase purchase intent. This can be accomplished by targeting price-sensitive customers and eliciting positive emotions. This study investigates the price sensitivity, emotive response, and purchase intentions of customers. This study advances the scholastic understanding of consumer behaviour in <br />modern retail and literature.</p> Haseeb Abdullah, Muhammad Faheem Jan, Faheem Zeb, Shumaila Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of Tax Knowledge, Tax System Complexity and Tax Fairness Perception on Compliance Behavior of a Taxpayer in KPK <p>This study encompasses and aims to find the impact of tax-related knowledge, the system complexity, and tax fair perception in shaping the tax compliance behavior of taxpayers residing in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan. The theoretical framework for the study was constructed based on distributive justice theory and the theory of planned behavior. A deductive approach was adopted, and a structured questionnaire was designed and adapted for tax-payers, the survey was done based on this questionnaire to investigate the hypothesis of the study. To make an inference, ordinal regression was run to see the significance of tax knowledge, tax system complexity, and fairness perception in shaping the compliance behavior of tax-payers. The results suggested that tax compliance behavior relies on tax knowledge, tax system complexity, and tax-fairness perception of a taxpayer and all these factors play a vital role in molding the compliance behavior of a taxpayer. The results imply that to attain a more compliant tax system, initiatives should be taken to enhance the tax knowledge of taxpayers and to reduce the tax system complexity that prevails in the system, these initiatives seem to enhance a positive perception of taxpayers regarding tax system and would ultimately help the system attain a more compliant environment. The study also depicted that despite the difference among tax-payers based on their demographics; in terms of age, income, gender, and experience, all the tax-payers respond similarly when it comes to meeting their tax obligations and none of these demographic traits seem to distinguish taxpayers from one another.</p> Fizza Latif, Maryam Jabeen, Madiha Jabeen Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Social Media and Travel Planning Behavior: Influencing Content on Facebook, Instagram and Youtube <p>The tourism industry is significantly influenced by social media, as it serves as a primary resource for travelers to seek information about various places. This study has been conducted to examine the interrelationships among factors that impact individuals' willingness to use social media platforms for trip planning and the desire to engage in travel activities. The current investigation incorporates the theoretical frameworks of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the <br />Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), while also examining the impact of travel-related material on social media platforms such as Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram. The study used a sample of 388 domestic tourists who were active users of social media platforms. The findings of the study indicate that the components of TAM, specifically perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in the context of social networks has a favorable impact on individuals' intention to engage in the social media’s platform and their desire to visit destination. In addition, the aspects of TPB, specifically the attitude and perceived behavioral control, demonstrate a substantial impact on behavioral intention. The findings indicate that there is a direct and positive relationship of Instagram and YouTube travel content towards behavioral intention. While, there is no significant influence of subjective norms and Facebook’s travel content on behavioral intention. This study suggests <br />that Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) can enhance their marketing strategies by leveraging social media platforms, influencer marketing, and user-generated content to attract more tourists.</p> Hifsa Sabeen, Shakeel Ahmad, Danish Ali, Qurat UL Ain Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of Intellectual Capital on Financial Performance: Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan <p>In knowledge economy, intellectual capital (IC) is widely recognized as a key factor in boosting corporate competitiveness and creating value. This study used the Extended Value Added Intellectual Coefficient model to assess the impact of Intellectual Capital (IC) efficiency on financial performance of banks operating within the boundaries of Pakistan. To fulfill this purpose, study used panel data over the period 2015-2022. Return on asset and Return on equity, two financial measures are used as proxy for dependant variable. Independent variables include VAIC and its components. Data has been collected from financial statements available at State Bank of Pakistan’s website. Our regression study revealed that human capital and innovation capital had the greatest impact on a firm's performance. Capital employed, structural capital and relational capital do not show statistically significant positive relationship with the financial performance as measured by ROA. Study has found no significant relationship between ROE and VAIC. Regression analysis shows that VAIC is not suitable to measure financial performance of banks in case of ROE. Furthermore, it is clear that Pulic (1998)'s initial VAIC model is outperformed by the expanded and updated VAIC model. According to the results, it is advised that bank executives set up a separate division for keeping accurate records of all IC components and that policymaker’s account for structural and relational capital when establishing policies and procedures to avoid having an adverse effect on the financial performance.</p> Afzia Tariq, Asim Rahman, Nisar Khan, Naveed Khan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of Social Capital and Intellectual Capital on Firm Performance with the Mediating Role of Innovation Activities: An Empirical Evidence of Employees of Software Houses of Abbottabad <p>This study investigates the connection between social capital (SC), intellectual capital (IC), and firm performance (FP) in software firms in Abbottabad, KP, a developing city in Pakistan. In addition, the study investigates how innovation activities (INA) mediate these three factors. Utilizing quantitative methodologies, 400 employees were surveyed. The results indicate that social and intellectual capital enhance innovation and business performance. Innovation activities regulate the relationship between intellectual capital and business performance. This demonstrates how innovation processes make use of intellectual capital to enhance performance. This paper examines these characteristics of software <br />companies in developing economies, thereby filling a research vacuum. This enhances the field's comprehension. The study demonstrates the importance of social and intellectual capital, innovation, and a businessfriendly environment for software companies. These insights enable decision-makers, administrators, and executives in the software industry <br />of developing nations to enhance organizational performance and innovation. Additionally, the study establishes research on strategic management and organizational theory. It also encourages future research in various sectors and fields to better comprehend the intricate connections between social capital, intellectual capital, innovation activities, and enterprise success.</p> Furqan Khalid, Muhammad Hassan, Syed Sibtain Ali Shah Kazmi, Mohsin Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Reviewing the Impact of the Macroeconomic Components on the Performance of the Construction Industry <p>The construction industry is a crucial part of economic development, and its performance dynamics are influenced by macroeconomic variables such as GDP, interest rates, inflation trends, and government policies. The industry's health is closely linked to a healthy economy, and the performance of domestic and foreign economies always affects expansion <br />or contraction in construction projects. Higher interest rates can increase financing costs, reducing construction activities, but historically, rising consumer prices have led to increased material and labour costs and longer project timelines. The government's role is also highlighted, as policy changes can propel or curtail industry development. The study also <br />examines international economic trends, such as global trade and investment patterns, which impact the construction industry and contribute to transnational governance under the framework of globalization. To address these challenges, strong economic policies, optimized regulation, and a deeper understanding of the industry’s cyclical nature are essential. <br />This analysis provides a broad perspective on the economic foundations of the construction industry, allowing decision-makers in business and policy to make more strategic choices.</p> Nadia Shafeeq Mughal Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of Intellectual Capital on Sustainable Organizational Performance with Mediating Role of Human Resource and Moderating Role of Employee Engagement <p>The dynamic landscape of the global economy, propelled by technological advancements, necessitates a profound transformation in the Science and Technology (S&amp;T) sector. However, Pakistan's S&amp;T sector grapples with challenges stemming from limited research and development (R&amp;D) organizations, mismanagement, and a disconnect between industry and S&amp;T entities. This study aims to fill the existing research gap by examining the impact of Human Resource (HR) management on the relationship between Intellectual Capital (IC) and sustainable organizational performance within Pakistan's S&amp;T sector. The research questions delve into the influence of ICM on organizational performance, the mediating role of HR management, and the moderating effect of employee engagement. Employing a quantitative research approach, the study utilizes a questionnaire to collect primary data from S&amp;T organizations. However, the method section requires refinement for clarity and precision. The proposed research design, methodology, and analysis techniques, including the application of PLS-Structural Equation Modelling, are outlined. A pilot study is deemed necessary to assess the viability of the research design and gather preliminary insights before the main study. The results and implications, particularly in the context of HR management's mediating role and employee engagement's moderating <br />effect, has been discussed comprehensively. In conclusion, this research seeks to enhance understanding of the intricate relationship between Intellectual Capital, HR management, employee engagement, and sustainable organizational performance in Pakistan's S&amp;T sector. Through rigorous investigation, the study aims to provide actionable recommendations to foster a conducive environment for innovation and long-term sustainability</p> Fayaz Ahmed Soomro, Fahad Khan Afridi, Naveed Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Assessment of Integration of Sustainable Development Principles in University Curricula, A Systematic Literature Review <p>Sustainable development (SD) concerns are important and recurring in higher education (HE), industries, businesses, and other sectors globally. They are crucial considering environmental issues and the need to balance economic, environmental, and social factors. Over the past two years, HE has become more interested in sustainability, and SD features should be included in curricula to raise understanding of SD challenges. Thus, individuals and organizations can seek solutions for a more sustainable and resilient future. The first step in promoting sustainability in HE is to evaluate how well SD principles are incorporated into existing curricula. The rationale behind undertaking the Systematic <br />Literature Review (SLR) was to ascertain the underlying cause. The SLR comprised 27 articles published in renowned journals categorized into five primary themes offering an extensive overview of research conducted over sixteen years, encompassing the years 2006 to 2022, and complied with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for <br />Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Those five themes focus on “The tools for assessment of integration SD principles in curricula”, “Integration of SD principles in Higher Education”, “Integration of SD principles in Specific Disciplines”, “Barriers and Challenges in Integration”, and “Case Studies and Implementation Strategies”. The SLR’s findings highlight a notable surge in interest regarding the integration of SD principles into university curricula, recognized as crucial in addressing global challenges like climate change, resource depletion, and societal disparities. It explored assessment techniques, obstacles in the integration of SD principles into curricula, and strategies to overcome them.</p> Sadia Akhund, Wahid Bux Mangrio, Abdul Sami Qureshi, Iffat Batool Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Effect of Covid-19 on the Financial Performance of Banking Industry in Pakistan: A comparative study of Public & Private Banks <p>The study aims to investigate the effect of covid-19 epidemic on the financial performance of banking industry of Pakistan, with comparative analysis regarding effect of pandemic on the financial performance of public and private sector of Pakistan banks. The research study sample includes 33 banks which are divided into four sectors. For the current <br />study normality test, Shapiro-wilk and skuwness- kurtosis and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test has been used on the data extracted from annual financial statements of 5 years (2018 to 2022). The study results determind that Covid-19 pandemic put miner effect on the financial performance of banking industry of Pakistan, when banking financial performance during covid-19 compared with before pandemic crises situation. Moreover, the results determined that financial performance of banking industry was adversely affected by covid-19 pandemic, when banking financial performance of during epidemic was compared with the post pandemic situation. Furthermore, the findings revealed that pandemic has significant and negative effect on the financial performance of public &amp; private sector banks in Pakistan when during and before pandemic situation comparison was made. Furthermore, the study concluded that covid-19 outbreak has positive and insignificant effect on the financial performance of public sector banks, while financial performance of private sector banks witnessed negative and significant effect of outbreak, when financial performance of banking sector during covid-19 outbreak was compared with post epidemic banking performance crises situation. The study findings are helpful for policy makers like investors and banks managements and may help them for decision making regarding their managing and investment activities.</p> Shafqat Zaman, Asim Rehman, Naveed Khan, Nisar Khan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Business and Management Sciences Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0200